miércoles, 1 de abril de 2015

In the apparel Industry, manufacturing starts in design development stage because it directly affects the costing of the garments. Designers, sample room manager, industrial engineering department and production management should all report from cutting to finishing. The following post explains how the AFS solution supports each process.

1 Introduction           

A good apparel manufacturing solution provides visibility into contractor and factory operations by tracking work-in-progress, raw material requirements, and finished good deliveries. By monitoring production from start to finish users have accurate up-to-date information for proper cost analysis and improved buying decisions. A good solution will display information needed, when it is needed, and when finished goods will be delivered so you can achieve a just-in-time inventory position. By tracking consumption and maintaining contractor history, you can evaluate performance and improve efficiency.
A comprehensive integrated bill of materials is the foundation of the production module. A bill of materials can be created for a model, and then used as a template for multiple style bills of materials. The style bill of materials serves as both a costing tool and a means of calculating raw material requirements. Some finished products consumption may vary depending on size or color determination.

The production should allow users to track a cutting ticket as it moves in the shop floor, from contractor to contractor or through operations, following all production stages. Inquiries show the status of the cutting ticket and the quantities expected with estimated delivery dates.

Production status is linked to customer service inquiries so you can confidently give customers accurate information about product availability.

Raw material purchase orders must handle multiple currencies and countries, as well as multiple units of measure. 

For outsourced manufacturing, POs should be automatically emailed to the vendor, saving time.  Vendor POs can be combined into shipments, making costing and trafficking easier and more precise.

2 The process

2.1    Merchandise / Design Department

Merchandise Planning is out of the scope of this post. But one of the main task is to create seasonal budgets. From there of course also includes management of important day-to-day tasks such as selecting styles and monitoring daily sales figures among others.

2.2    CAD Department

Tech pack is received from Head office or merchandise department, containing all the information regarding the style illustration, size, trims, colors, stitch and seam class, fit, sampling details, and packing and finishing details.

2.3    Make basic pattern / digitizing and grading

Basic pattern is made manually by pattern master in one base size. 
This base size is then digitized on the Gerber digitizer board or any other tool.
Patterns initially are made in only one size. We need to proportionally increase or decrease the size of a pattern, while maintaining shape, fit, balance and scale of style details.

There are also important processes such as , shrinkage in pattern grading, Shrinkage adjusting, pattern printing.

2.4    Fabric Store / Inspection

This is the most important department of the unit for an apparel manufacturing company, where in the quality and quantity of fabric is inspected as soon as it is received in the store, along with storing and maintaining stock levels and ensuring to stock up in proper clean way.
The 4 point system is generally used for fabric inspection. In this system, points are assigned for every possible defect.

2.5    Trim Stores

This store is responsible for storing and neatly maintaining the trims received from the suppliers
Different types of trims include:

  • Buttons
  • Hooks
  • Badges
  • Zippers
  • Collar pick bone
  • Tags : brand name, collection name and fit type
  • Labels : wash care, size and fit, brand
  • Fusible labels
  • Leather patches
  • Twill tape/ Cross grain tape ( cotton/polyester)
  • Needles

2.6    Sampling Department

The sampling for each season begins according to the product cycle of style. This process is also called Product development (P.D). One should also know the tentative size ratio in each style. This is because the costing of the product depends highly on the fabric consumption. Kinds of samples prepared:

  1. Photosample: only sketch/illustration of the garment is present in the photosample sheet.
  2. Fit sample: one sample in base size measurement is made and send for approval at head office.
  3. Size set: one garment sample in each size is prepared and sent for approval. No need to add the trims to the garment.
  4. PP sample: This is the pre-production sample that is the exact replica like original sample.
  5. Shipment sample: A random sample is picked from the production lot and sent for approval.

Usually a real time / drag & drop tool is used to update on these critical activities.

3 Production Planning & Scheduling

Planning:  This involves a long term overview around the year, based on market forecast. An agreement is necessary about whether the production unit can cope up with the expected sales, in terms of overall volume and in terms of specialized plant and operatives.

Scheduling: The work is allocated to the production capacity according to the agreed plan as soon as the orders are confirmed.

Controlling: The production process is very uncertain and rarely goes according to the schedule, especially when the processes are complex and dependent on the performance of individuals. Sometimes orders are cancelled and rush orders come through.

4 Cutting

Cutting involves three basic operations: making the marker, spreading the fabric, and chopping the spread fabric into the marked sections.

Cutting is an essential part of garment engineering that demands precession. Accurate control of cloth width produces economies in edge margins. Precise cutting not only avoids spoilt work at the making up stage but is the key to modern sewing room practice.

5  Sewing

Clothing, footwear, and allied industries have been known as the needle trades because sewing is the major assembly and decorative process used. Some items such as plastic raincoats and footwear are assembled and decorated by fusing, but only a tiny fraction of garments were produced completely by fusing, cementing, or mold casting.

6 Packing & Finishing


Order processing is the period between the time of placement of the order by the buyer to the time of arrival of the goods at his destination. This cycle is made up of the transmission of the order, document processing in the department and shipment of goods
Packaging’ on the other hand deals with activities of planning and designing of different means of packaging the product. However, it should be noted that packing is concerned with product protection while packaging is concerned product promotion.

When the garments are readily packed and arranged in containers/cartoons, they are arranged buyer wise and shipment date wise. Right dispatch time means right delivery time.

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