miércoles, 15 de abril de 2015

Footwear can be defined as garments that are worn on the feet. There main purpose is protecting one's feet. Of late, footwear has become an important component of fashion accessories.

1  Introduction           

Shoemaking can be considered a traditional handicraft profession. However, now it has been largely taken over by industrial manufacture of footwear. A variety of materials are used for making shoes- leather  fabrics, plastic, rubber, fabrics, wood, jute fabrics, and metal. More than 200 operations are required for making a pair of shoes. However, with the development of modern machines, a pair of shoes can be made in very less time as each step in its manufacturing is generally performed by a separate footwear making machine.

2  Parts of a Shoe

A shoe consists of sole, insole, outsole, midsole, heel, and vamp (upper). They are the basic parts of a shoe that are mostly included in all types off shoes. Other parts of a shoe are lining, tongue, quarter, welt and backstay. These parts are included as per the design of the shoes.

3  Shoe Making Process

3.1  Clicking or Cutting Department

Cutting of Shoe Sole.  In this department, the top part of the shoe or the "upper" is made. The clicking operative is given skins of leather, mostly cow leather but not restricted to this type of leather. Using metal strip knives, the worker cuts out pieces of various shapes that will take the form of "uppers"

3.2  Closing or Machining Department

Shoe Closing or Stitching. Here the component pieces are sewn together by highly skilled machinists so as to produce the completed upper. The work is divided in stages. In early stages, the pieces are sewn together on the flat machine. In the later stages, when the upper is no longer flat and has become three-dimensional, the machine called post machine is used. The sewing surface of the machine is elevated on a post to enable the operative to sew the three dimensional upper

3.3  Lasting & Making Department

Shoe Lasting The completed uppers are molded into a shape of foot with the help of a "Last". Last is a plastic shape that simulates the foot shape. It is later removed from the finished shoe to be used further in making other shoes.

3.4  Finishing Department and the Shoe Room

Shoe Finishing The finishing of a shoe depends on the material used for making it. If made of leather, the sole edge and heel are trimmed and buffed to give a smooth finish. To give them an attractive finish and to ensure that the edge is waterproof, they are stained, polished and waxed. The bottom of the sole is often lightly buffed, stained and polished and different types of patterns are marked on the surface to give it a craft finished look. A "finished shoe" has now been made

4  How AFS helps footwear companies to run simple

The Apparel & Footwear solution helps small and midsize companies to run simple. Bellow an example of simple steps to manage a shoe manufacturing process:

4.1  Style / Model Development

The solution tracks the entire product lifecycle management, from product development to delivery. The process starts by creating a new design, pictures, add a size chart template and some color.

Remote access is provided for factories or merchandisers to update information directly to SAP. 

4.2  Manufacturing Operations and material management

SAP Business One allows user to create materials an operations. These will be part of the standard costing sheet (and neutral BOMs) and the final BOMs (Bill of Manufacturing).

4.3  Cost Sheet

Create at least one costing sheet with standard materials and operations. The objective is to set the cost and final selling price for the style. 

4.4  Bill of Manufacturing

After the standard materials and operations are created the solution creates all BOMs with material consumption, operations and resources.

4.5  Production Order with size runs

 The solution supports MTO – Make to Order or MTS – Make to stock. The manufacturing order is generated agains the style and size combinations.

4.6  Order Planning / WIP

Once the order is added in planned status the scheduler serves as the planning tool to allocate orders to resources. The Drag & drop tool allows user to easily work and track orders.

4.7  Inventory Management

After receiving in inventory a good practice is building prepacks to manage across the supply chain or store as solids.

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